universalism definition government
36. They are not governed by any law, do not cultivate friendships and do not have any organized community. 29. This point becomes clear when Las Casas moves on to a discussion of what universalism is in relation to the understanding of the barbarian. The Indians do not speak for themselves. Far from being a monolithic phenomenon, it is extremely diverse, combining uniformity with local differentiation, top-down impositions with bottom-up creation, formal declaration with interstitial emergence, boundary-maintaining orientation with boundary-transcending orientation.41, [the] legal protection of human beings seems to be much more territorialized than the legal protection of goods and services. Rivista semestrale di diritto, politica e cultura, vol.
20. Most recently and convincingly by Susan Buck-Morss, who argues that not only is this a historical truth but also that an awareness of the fact must lead to a remapping of our understanding of the history of humanism—a remapping that is of importance in relation to actual discussions about humanism: “Present realities demand such historical remapping as an alternative to the fantasies of clashing civilizations and exclusionary redemptions.”6. BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS: A HUMANIST OR A BATTERING RAM FOR IMPERIALISM? The person who had “dared to write that countless numbers of natives across the ocean are barbarous, savage, uncivilized, and slow witted” was Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda who here is turned into a blasphemous person—an intolerable position for a man who considered himself a true Christian and who heavily leaned on the decree of the Pope Alexandre VI who had given the Indies to Spain. The aim of the trial was to establish whether the Spanish conquest and warfare in America was just or unjust. 15. Are We Entering 'Uncharted' or 'Unchartered' Waters. The declaration states the principle of autonomy, that is, the fact that no one can be made equal by an external force, since “politics is an unfolding of the self-determination of the people” or, Balibar says, referring to Kant, politics is “the people's own responsibility.”8 However, in order for a group of people to have this responsibility, it has to be recognized as a subject who is the bearer of universal rights without being idealized as universal bearer of rights, or even worse: as a universal victim which would bestow a false pathos on the universal. universalism synonyms, universalism pronunciation, universalism translation, English dictionary definition of universalism. Yet at the same time, the Spanish Kings,—from Ferdinand and Isabella to Charles V and Phillip II—seemed to be extremely preoccupied both with the legal foundation of the conquest, with the justice of it, and with the wellbeing of the aborigines. Law, Science and Politics in the Paradigmatic Transition (New York: Routledge, 1995), 1059. Spain is in particular an interesting example, not only because of the legalistic culture of the country, but also because the discovery of the new world led to an explicit clash between universalistic, global and national logics. But to understand all the political dimensions of this discourse, it has to be placed in its historical context. Francisco de Vitoria, Section 3, Part 2, De Indis De Jure Belli, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/De_Indis_De_Jure_Belli/Part_2 (accessed December 6, 2011). Historically speaking, human rights are closely connected with globalization, but at the same time, they raise the question about the foundation of globalization: is there a universal community or only economic and political power-relations? Even if the conquests did not stop, as Las Casas had wished, they became more pacific. Las Casas takes his point of departure in the four categories of barbarians, as defined by Aristotle in Politics (books 1 and 3) and Ethics (book 7), and by Thomas Aquinas and “other doctors in various places”.24, Let us look briefly at these arguments.
45. More precisely, the discourse of hegemonic domination has to be one in which it is possible to appeal against a de facto discrimination to a de jure equality – […].9. Does not this negative precept apply to all men in general: “See that you do not do to another, what you would not have done to you by another”? G. L. Ulmen (New York: Telos Press Publishing, 2003), 15. In the trial, two conflicting views on the conquest and the status of the Indians were presented before The Council of Valladolid and Prince Philip, the son of King Charles. According to Balibar, even absolute power is dialectical, since it “presupposes a resistance” (17). Can there be any national political motivation for the exposure of national responsibility for atrocities and “infringements” of human rights?
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